Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

This is an infection of the upper part of the female reproductive system, namely the uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries and also the inside of the pelvis. Usually bacteria spreading from the vagina to pelvis cause the infection.

Symptoms

Often there may be no symptoms at all.

Some symptoms may include:

  • Lower abdominal pain
  • Vaginal discharge that is yellowish or green with a foul odor
  • Fever with chills
  • Burning or painful urination
  • Pain during sex
  • Irregular periods

Untreated PID can lead to complications like:

  • Sepsis
  • Infertility
  • Ectopic pregnancy
  • Chronic pelvic pain
  • Cancer

Diagnosis

  • Pelvic examination: will reveal tenderness on cervix movement, uterine and adnexal tenderness
  • Culture of mucopurulent discharge from cervix and urethra
  • In some cases, laparoscopy, intra-abdominal bacteria sampling and culturing or tissue biopsy
  • USG, CT and MRI may be done if needed
  • Blood tests like ESR, CRP level, chlamydia and gonococcal DNA probes
  • Endometrial biopsy

Prevention

  • Use of condoms to practice safe sex
  • Early seeking of treatment for symptoms
  • Single exclusive sex partner
  • Avoid douches

Treatment

  • Antibiotics based on organism
  • Treat sexual partners for possible STDs
  • When PID causes an abscess, drainage of pus is required and is done by laparoscopic method or open abdominal approach
  • Avoid intra uterine devices in those with multiple partners

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