The type of cancer that begins in the cells of blood-forming tissues, such as the bone marrow or in the cells of the immune system, is referred to as hematologic malignancies. Examples of this condition include: acute or chronic leukemia, multiple myeloma, lymphomas and myelodysplastic syndromes.
To know more about the different types of hematologic malignancies, symptoms and treatment options in India, continue reading.
Types of Hematologic Malignancies
The following are the main types of hematologic malignancies:
Leukemia: is caused due to rapid production of abnormal white blood cells and is classified by the type of white blood cell affected: myeloid or lymphatic. It is further classified as acute or chronic. This high production of white blood cells is ineligible to fight infection. Further, it also damages the bone marrow’s ability to produce red blood cells and platelets. These patients are highly susceptible to infections.
Lymphoma: is a type of blood cancer of the lymphatic system. This system aids in removing excess fluids from the body and helps in producing immune cells. Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cells that protect the body against any kind of infections. Abnormal lymphocytes are what turn to lymphoma cells. This multiplies and collects in the lymph nodes and other tissues. Over time, these cancerous cells impair the immune system.
Myeloma: In this form of blood cancer, the plasma cells get affected. These cells are white blood cells that produce antibodies in the body to fight off diseases and infections. Myeloma cells disrupt the regular production of antibodies in the body, thus making your immune system weak and more prone to infections and diseases.
Myelodysplastic syndromes: Poorly formed of dysfunctional blood cells causes this group of disorders. For normal functioning of the body, your bone marrow needs to produce the proper number of red blood cells. That’s not all; these cells also need to have the right shape and function. Myelodysplastic syndromes occur when the bone marrow is unable to produce healthy blood cells.
Hematological Malignancies Symptoms
There are numerous symptoms associated with hematologic cancers. Common symptoms include: weakness, unplanned weight loss, poor appetite, shortness of breath, fatigue, recurring infections, distended or painful abdomen, enlarged lymph nodes, easy bleeding and bruising, fractures, night sweats, persistent mild fever, bone or joint pain, and decreased urination due to impaired kidney function.
It is important to note that certain symptoms of hematologic cancer are more likely to occur with some cancers than others. For instance, in myeloma a patient is more likely to experience bone pain whereas in lymphoma enlarged lymph nodes will be experienced.
Hematologic Malignancies Treatment
Hematologic cancer treatment can occasionally consist of ‘watchful waiting’ or symptomatic treatment like blood transfusions. If the cancer were advanced then treatment would include chemotherapy, radiotherapy and immunotherapy. In rare cases your doctor can also consider a bone marrow transplant.
To know more about hematologic malignancies, its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment, do make it a point to consult the doctors at Columbia Asia Hospital India today.
Tags: Hematologic malignancies , hematological , blood cancer , Symptoms , Treatment , bone marrow , leukemia , lymphoma , myeloma