Assisted reproductive technology is a term used to describe the treatment available to help those who have difficulty in conceiving a child naturally. These treatment options usually involve handling and manipulation of eggs and/or sperm in the lab to carry out simple procedures like artificial insemination/ intra uterine insemination (AI/IUI), or more advanced procedures including in vitro fertilization (IVF), intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and various other treatments. Along with these primary treatments, the department also offers other associated treatments.
- Assisted Hatching (AH): It is a procedure to assist the embryos' escape from its shell, so that it can implant intothe woman’s uterus. It is recommended in special cases like poor quality of eggs/embryos or repeated IVF failures.
- Cryopreservation of Semen, Eggs and Embryos: This is a process where either eggs, sperm or embryos arefrozen for future treatment, using a specialised process in the lab.
- Pre-Implantation Genetic Screening, Pre-Implantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGS, PGD): This is aspecialised treatment for couples who carry an inherited genetic defect that could cause serious health risks for theirchildren, such as cystic fibrosis, sickle cell disease or thallesemia. This involves taking cells from the embryo andassessing their chromosomes or genes by very specialized procedures in order to select embryos, without thespecific condition, prior to embryo transfer.
- Donor program for Semen, Eggs and Embryos: In certain couples, a pregnancy cannot be achieved or thereis a very low likelihood of a pregnancy with their own eggs and sperm. In such cases, the options of donors sperm,egg or embryo can be considered.
- Surrogacy or Gestational Surrogacy: This is an arrangement where a woman called the surrogate mother,carries and delivers a child for another couple. In gestational surrogacy, an embryo is implanted into the surrogatemother’s uterus to achieve a pregnancy. The surrogate mother is not genetically related to the baby. Intraditional surrogacy, the surrogate woman gives her egg and the baby grows in her uterus and hence she is genetically related to the child.
- Fertility Preservation: Eggs and sperm can be frozen for future use if men or women are diagnosed with cancerand are due to undergo treatment that could damage their fertility. Women may also choose to freeze their eggsto delay having a child.
- Treatment of Immunological Problems related to Infertility: Dysfunction of the immune system couldcontribute to infertility and pregnancy loss. Indeed, a large number of pregnancies/IVF cycles fail because ofchromosomal abnormalities in the embryo. These defects occur randomly and are not always the cause ofrecurrent pregnancy losses and repeat IVF failure, especially in the younger set of patients. Hence, in selectedcases immunological testing should be considered.
- Surgical Management of Female subfertility Problems: Including laparoscopic ovarian drilling, adhesiolysis, salpingectomy for hydrosalpinx or ectopic pregnancy, laparoscopic/open myomectomy, laparoscopic cystectomy, hysteroscopic tubal cannulation, hysteroscopicpolypectomy, hysteroscopic fibroid resection, etc.
- Surgical Management of Male Subfertility: Surgical sperm retrieval techniques as discussed above, varicocelectomy, repair of obstructed vas deferens, etc.
- Treatments for Sexual Intercourse Problems: Medication or counselling can help improve fertility in conditions such as vaginismus, erectile dysfunction or premature ejaculation.
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